Knowledge Refresher

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Recent Flight Experience 61.57
– 3 take off landings 90 days, same category class and type
– Night 1 hour after sunset 1 hour before sunrise, full stop landings
– IFR, 6 months 6 approaches, holding, intercepting and tracking

PIC Authority 91.3

– PIC responsible for and final authority as to the operation of that aircraft

ATC Instructions 91.123

– No deviation unless emergency

Preflight actions 91.103
– RAW FAT, Runway lengths, Alternates, Weather, Fuel requirements, ATC delays, TOLD data

Safety belts 91.107
– No pilot may cause to be moved on the surface take off or land (unless buckled up)

Careless operations 91.13
– No person may operate an aircraft in a careless or reckless manner so as to endanger the life or property of another

Dropping objects 91.15
– Can’t hurt anyone, can drop if reasonable precautions are taken

Alcohol or drugs 91.17
– 8 hours of alcohol, .04 concentration, not under influence of alcohol or drugs

Supplemental oxygen 91.211
– 12.5-14K min crew needs O2 for more 30 minutes of flight, 14K ^ min crew at all times, 15k ^ all occupants

Fitness for flight AIM CH 8 Sec 1
– IMSAFE, Illness Medication Stress Alcohol Fatigue Emotion

Basic airworthiness 91.7
– Can’t fly unless airworthy, PIC responsible to ensure condition for safe flight

POH, markings, placards 91.9
Need placards, markings etc up that are specified in approved Airplane Flight Manual

Required instruments/equip 91.205
– ATOMATO FLAMES: Alt, Tach, Oil pressure, Mag compass, Seat belts, A/S, Temp sensor, Oil temp, Manifold pressure, Strobe light
-FLAPS, Fuses or circuit breaker, Landing light (if hire), Anti coll, Position lights, Sources of electricity
– GRAB CARD: Generator, Radios, Att indicator, Ball, Clock, Adjustable alt, Rate of turn ind, Directional gyro

ELT 91.207
– Batteries replaced if transmitter used for more than 1 hour or when 50% of useful life has expired
– Must be inspected within 12 calendar months after last inspection

Position lights 91.209
– Sunrise to sunset have position lights

Transponder requirements 91.215
– Class A, B, C; 30NM 10 ft MSL ring, Above lateral boundaries of class B or C, above 10K ft MSL but not below 2500 AGL
-Transponder must be on if you got it

Inop instruments / equip 91.213
– record of inop equipment
– Can’t have equipment that is needed for airworthiness or other req
– Removed from aircraft, cockpit control placarded, recorded
– deactivated and placarded inoperative
– determination made by pilot if the aircraft still safe to operate

Responsibility 91.403
– owner or operator responsible for maintaining aircraft in airworthy condition
– no maintenance other than those approved

Required maintenance 91.405
– Required maintenance done, records show the aircraft approved for return to service

Maintenance records 91.417
– how 100 hour shall be recorded

Required inspections 91.409
– Annual inspection

– 100 hour for commercial use

Altimeter and Pitot static 91.411

– IFR unless altimeter pitot static test 24 calendar months
VOR checks 91.171
– 30 days check, shows different parameters for checks +/-4 degrees intended departure point, surface test, airborn +/- 6
Transponder 91.413
– 24 calendar months test

ELT 91.207
– Used for more than 1 cumulative hour, 50 percent of useful life
– ELT inspection 12 months
Airport markings AIM CH 2 SEC 3
– Aiming point 1000 ft from landing threshold
– Touchdown zone 500 feet increments

Airport operations AIM 4-3, 91.125, 91.126
– prop aircraft standard is 1K AGL, either 1500 AGL or 500 ft AGL above established pattern

Airport traffic patterns 91.126

Altimeter settings 91.121 AIM 7-2
– Below 18K current altimeter within 100NM of aircraft, above 18K 2992
– Going from a high to low, look out below

Min safe alt 91.119, 91.177
– anywhere: land with undue hazard to persons property
– congested 1K ft over highest obstacle, radius 2K feet
– Other 500 feet bubble
– Below MEA but not MOCA if nav signals available
– No minalt then 2K above highest obstacle and 4NM from course mountainous, 1K other

Cruising alt 91.159, 91.173, AIM 3.1.5
– East is odd, west is odder, +500 VFR MAG Ccourse, 0-179
– Need flight plan for IFR

Right of way 91.113
– In distress gets right of way
– Converging aircraft to other’s right has right of way
– Balloon > glider > airship
– Head on both right, overtaken aircraft has right of way, landing aircraft over other aircraft in flight or on surface

Formation flights 91.111
– Can’t create a collision hazard, PIC of every aircraft arrange it, can’t while carrying passengers
Controlled airspace AIM 3-2, 91.135, 91.131, 91.130, 91.129
– B student needs endorsement

Controlled airspace AIM 3-2, 91.135, 91.131, 91.130, 91.129, Class G airspace AIM 3-3, Weather basics AIM 7-1

– B student needs endorsement

SUA AIM 3-4, 91.133, 91.137, 91.141, 91.143, 91.145
– Prohibited: NO, restricted: need permission or cold
– Warning: 3NM outward from coast
– MOA can but please don’t
– Alert area high volume of pilot training
– Check TFR and NOTAMS

EMER air traffic rules AIM 5-6, 91.139
– Issuing NOTAM under emergency air traffic rules



Wake turbulence AIM 7-3